Saturday, December 17, 2011


The nature of the family is the unity of the whole family of father, mother, and child in a true partnership. Each family member feel that they are integral members (full and integral) of each other. The family is the establishment of a private person, but every person who has been in form in the family can also be influenced by the environment. For Christians, in particular all the family must purify and empowered by Jesus Christ so that the family had to be obedient and grow so that every act they do is determined by the confidence and experience kekeritenan in the Lord. A family can not be separated from the life of a broad alliance of church and society. Christian families should be salt and light in the midst of society through the attitudes and behavior of family members in the community before God. Inside is a teacher-parent families for their children.[1]
According to J. Verkuyl, there are three tasks and responsibilities of parents in the family, namely:
1.    Care of physical needs of children.
The task of parents is the most basic physical care needs of children, through attention to physical needs of children such as feeding, clothing, shelter and so forth.
2.    Creating a comfortable atmosphere for children
Every parent is always trying to create an atmosphere of intimacy, affection, hospitality and security for families, especially children.[2]
3.    Providers of education for children
Parents educate children to the right path through the physical and spiritual education. Parents teach and educate children under the leadership and supervision in accordance with the Word of God so that His children to become followers of Christ (cf. Romans 8:29). According Andar Ismail, parents have a duty and responsibility that is double as well as teachers and priests in the family. In this case, the task of parents as educators is through work, speech (oral), action (action), and be an example (spirituality). [3]
The responsibility of a father not only as head of household, he also bertanggungjwab earn a living for all family members, counsel, guide and protect his family, and trying to create an atmosphere of peace and living together in the family. While a mother's job is as a companion husband in his duties as head of the family, mothers also care for and raise children, advise and entertain every member of the family. Also a mother is also responsible for managing the family finances and participate in maintaining peace in the family.[4]
Conclusion / messages

Head of the family has a very important role to obtain salvation from God by showing faithfulness to God's family, through direct family and become a role model in his family worship to God. Worship done because the family had a personal experience with God in his life. Therefore, the worship of a family should also be applied so it does not become a stumbling block for others.

[1] M.L. Thomson,Keluarga Sebagai Pusat Pembentukan, Jakarta: BPK-GM, 2000, hlm. 28.
[2] J. Verkuyl, Etika Kristen Seksuil, Jakarta: BPK-GM, 1993, hlm. 174-189.
[3] Andar Ismail, Selamat Ribut Rukun, Jakarta: BPK-GM, 1997, hlm. 90-92.
[4] J. Verkuyl, Op.Cit, hlm. 169-173.

Illusion of an Islamic state based on the book

Indonesia has a rich tradition of spiritual and openly acknowledge and accept differences on the basis that the difference is merely the outward and all met in one reality that is substantially the same religious teachings that contain the sincerity of the worship of God. In terms of quantity, Islam does not have to worry about the future.

Population census of 2000 states that Muslims in Indonesia at 88.22% with two main wings of the NU and Muhammadiyah. NU and Muhammadiyah develop an Islam that is friendly to anyone, including people who have no religion, as long as all parties respect each other differences. Yet disasters can happen when religion loses the power of reason, it will be judging each other because of a disagreement in the interpretation of religion and ideology.
This problem is supported by the theory of fundamentalism in the Islamic world. Islam failed in the face of modernity that the value stream has been very corner of Islam, and because of his helplessness that that group is looking for the arguments of fundamentalism fundamentalism "to amuse themselves" in a fantasy world that has not been contaminated.
Another theory states that, the growing wave of fundamentalism in the Muslim countries which were underpinned by a sense of solidarity against the fate that befell his brothers in Palestine, Kashmir, Afghanistan, and Iraq. This sense of solidarity should be shown by the attitude that avoids violence and hoist the banner of peace.
The third theory is specialized Indonesia, the rise of fundamentalism in the archipelago over the country are caused by the failure to realize the ideals of freedom in the form of social justice and the creation of equitable prosperity for all Indonesian people.
More devastating war is war lust. Lust is difficult in the identification and are the enemy in the blanket that demand assertiveness and emotional toughness as integral part of each person. Lust is destructive and also holds the potential to make the soul is always restless, restless, and never quiet. When connected to the archipelago, although this kind of conflict occurred repeatedly since the time of the ancestors neneka Indonesia, but the spiritual teachings and values ​​of noble souls who still remain dominant in the ground water.
In a conference in Banjarmasin 1935, NU decided not to support the establishment of an Islamic state but rather encourage Muslims to practice their religion for the formation of an Islamic society and also allow to establish the nation state. The idea of ​​nation states is the fruit of bitter historical experience of the archipelago. On the one hand, the existence of a long history of the archipelago who have given birth and had great civilizations of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam. And on the other hand, the occurrence of a continuous dialogue between Islam as a set of religious teachings with which moved strong nationalism in the experience of the Indonesian nation, has confirmed the realization that the nation state recognizes and protects the diverse beliefs, cultures, and traditions of the Indonesian nation is the right choice for building life state and nation.
The founding fathers knew that in no Pancasila principles that conflict with religious teachings, otherwise the principles of Pancasila precisely reflect the key messages for all religions is the common good. In the context of Pancasila is ideal, everyone can help each other to achieve and improve the welfare of the world, and everyone is free to worship to achieve prosperity without losing sight of the first ukhrawi.
Nasionalist attitude is also a form of responsibility to ensure the future of the nation to keep it running in accordance with the culture and traditions of the archipelago, and in accordance with the substantive values ​​that religion has become an integral part of the nation of Indonesia. But hard-line activists ignore these principles and strive to change the religion of Islam from the ideologues. This change is clearly reduced, amputate and castrate sublime message of Islam from the religion of loving and tolerant to a narrow set of ideological constraints and rigid.
In general aspirations aspiras-hardliners in Indonesia is influenced by transnational Islamic movements from the Middle East, especially the Wahabi minded or the Muslim Brotherhood, or a combination of both. Extremist groups trying to win sympathy with the jargon of Muslims to fight and defend Islam with tarbiyah arguments and propaganda. Hardliners who consider each other Muslims understand Islam different is lacking or even non-believers and apostates, they infiltrated the mosques, educational lemabag, instasi-instasipemerintah and private, and moderate Islamic mass organizations, especially the NU and Muhammadiyah. Infiltration of militants has caused uproar in the body of Islamic mass organizations large.
Militant attitude and truth claims made by groups of Muslim extremists and politicians create confusion in the face because the values ​​conflict with Islamic law. Hard-line agents also infiltrated the MUI which is now said to be a bunker of fundamentalist movements and organizations are subversive in Indonesia. This is supported by the fatwa issued by MUI that is counter-productive and lead to controversy, the fatwa banning semi-secularism, pluralism, liberalism and convicted heretic against certain groups in society have led to violent acts in the name of Islam.
Through a study designed to discover, demonstrate and prove the existence of latent dangers in every movement, the movement turned out to have links with transnational Islamic movements from the Middle East, especially the Wahabis, the Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb ut-Tahrir to the purpose of regulating all aspects of national life Indonesian. In other words, this movement-centralized totalitarian ideology that makes religion as a theological judifikasi that support his political ambitions and with limited understanding of Islam makes them a right to represent God on earth.
Muslims have the confidence that that regulates all aspects of life is God Almighty. and the man just as his instrument. But this understanding is used by much of his understanding, because they understand the political aspects that have a superficial understanding of Islam. The moderate cleric understand his belief in the attitude muslim (surrender) the depth and sincerity through deeds so that Allah SWT. present him as hearing, eyesight, oral and legs so that her organs were only doing what a desired by Allah SWT. Allah SWT for managing all aspects of human life in the spiritual and love.
Wahabi-Muslim Brotherhood infiltrated many areas of Indonesia such as aspects of national life from the palace to the hill country, through parliamentary channels, street actions, annexation mosques and educational institutions, cleaning service up for free, even to the moderate Islamic mass organizations which already has the support of tersistem neatly.
There are several reasons that this action could be realized, namely (1) there are ideological similarities between extremist groups involved, especially those affiliated with the Wahabis, the Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb ut-Tahrir, which does not mean there is no difference. The reason they are united to face the enemy they are moderate Muslims who reject the formalization of religion and spirituality and more emphasis on substantive diversity. (2) Wahabisasi glogal has become a lucrative business so that the activists were having a lot of financial benefits from any action which they did.
Unified Tersistem and this movement in terms of funding, ideology and seistem the hardline movement to make every action they are very dangerous for the nation's tradition of diversity of Indonesia as well as for the preservation of Pancasila and the integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. From that perspective, the authors argue that, if the moderates had successfully mastered every extremist movement that is Wahabi, Muslim Brotherhood and Hizb ut-Tahrir, will be fighting to seize absolute power in the homeland of Indonesia.
Aspects that serious attention is the difference lies in the New Order and Old Order that is outside of government and today has been infiltrated and entered into the field of governance matters. This was seen with the efforts to replace Pancasila and the changing of the Republic of Indonesia that could be done through the parliaments in regional and national levels. Some of this year, there are some departments that are very clearly sided with the interests of hard-line groups are not known by reason. If the reason is the closeness oportunitis reason the people should be aware in choosing a leader of leaders who put the interests of nation and state.
The involvement of transnational extremists and foreign funds (Wahabi), which is oportunitis parties and politicians have made the phenomenon of extremist movements in Indonesia to be quite large and complex. The rejection of moderate Islam as Nadhatul Ulama (NU) and Muhammadiyah have made the two organizations are a prime target for infiltration of their movement. This is because their loyalty to the traditions of the diversity of the Indonesian nation is polite and tolerant, that is because the NU and Muhammadiyah have accepted the Pancasila and the Unitary Republic of Indonesia.
The moderate Muslim leaders considered that the hardline movement which is not lacking in understanding and practice the teachings of Islam, they reject and attack the spirituality because it deviated from the teachings of Islam. Therefore, efforts will be made to preserve the integrity of Pancasila and the Unitary Republic of Indonesia must do by peaceful means, responsible, and through education of the broadest and enlightening. Both of these moderate Islamic organizations who tried to resuscitate the elites and the public that hard-line groups is dangerous because it brings a transnational ideology that threatens the diversity of the nation's culture and traditions of Indonesia, Pancasila and threaten the integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia, for the hardline movement is not missionary movement but a political movement to goals came to power.
1.   Recommendations are offered to preserve the Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, Homeland and enforce heritage traditions, culture and spirituality of Indonesia, among others:
Encourage and inspire the public and the elites to be open, humble, and continue to learn in order to understand the essence of spirituality and religion, and became quiet souls.
2.    Stopping and resolved by peaceful means and responsible-chain and the spread of ideological hardliners through education (in the broadest sense) is enlightened, and mengajrkan and practice the noble message of Islam is capable of raising awareness as a servant of God The humble, tolerant and peaceful.
3.    Cooperate, remind each other about the truth and always to be patient menjadikunci important in this case, so the goal should not be in the noble efforts stained with dirty, hateful, or violent acts.

Friday, December 16, 2011

De Civitate Dei (City / State GOD)

Views on the two cities of God raised by Augustine because at the time blamed the collapse[1] of Rome church by the unbelievers.Augustine understand that the two cities that God is the Church and the World (State). Church and State are two institutions that both come from God, and both are in the world whose job is to foster peace, justice, and welfare of the people of God in this world.
The first part is the part that tells the fall of Rome as a disaster (I-III) and exposure to the concepts and discussions about the gods of the heathen (IV-X). The second part describes the origins, development and purpose of earthly and heavenly cities in the world. In the city of God, Augustine reflects the fall of Rome which later became the material understanding of the universal history of the world. Interpretation is made by way of tracing the history through two approaches (theological and philosophical). So the "Two Cities of God" is a work of historical theology, philosophy of history and political philosophy that has influenced Europe for centuries.[2] Therefore, the speakers will review the functions of the church in the midst of pressure and religious diversity.

II. Historical background.
A. Augustine's life.
Thagaste Augustine was born in North Africa, on November 13, 354. His father was a pagan named Patricus, S. Monika and her mother was a devout Christian and loving.[3]

B. Description
Birth of Augustine's view of the Two Kingdoms is inseparable from the history of the Roman empire, especially in 410's when the city of Rome was destroyed by the Goths[4]. In 378 the Goths began to take the fight against the Romans, Goths People who live suburban Roman and Roman government that sits in direct join with other Goths and invaded the city of Rome. And the city of Rome who was then aged 800 years, been won. The incident was regarded by Christians as the end of this world.[5]

a) Criteria for the Doctrine of the Church
The task of the church is to love love[6] all over the world including the World State society and to maintain justice and peace on earth.[7] The Church as a community have put on the characteristics of a new city, namely the form of social relations between members and economics are transformed with the highest fidelity to the community as the household of God.[8]

b) Criteria for the Doctrine of State
Plato's Ideal State Augustine transformed into God's Country is also very ideal. The Romans gained the victory not because of support for the gods, but because their own courage, or rather, because God was pleased to give the victory to them.
Augustine felt compelled to refute that view. Thus Augustine up the great work entitled "De Civitate Dei" (City / State GOD). The countries in this world can be useful, ie if maintaining justice and peace on earth.[9]

III. Doctrine of Two Cities of God
In the view of Augustine, human beings can grow together and prosper only in an orderly city state. Augustine put the power of the state is on a cosmic system which decreases downward as in a series of hierarchy that its source is in God, but on the other hand based on a Bible and his belief that the church is a community was selected as the citizens of the kingdom of God.
City Of God (Civitas Dei), in which Christians live is an eschatological state. Believers enter into it through baptism the church does. In the task to prepare souls for the city of God, the church will inevitably have to use the peace of the world city (civitas terrena). That means, the power of the state to contribute to real peace and heavenly city those Christians too participate in it pursuit of peace is not solely for the safety of themselves but of love of neighbor.
In the two countries there are two kinds of love that is God's love (love God) and love of self. Adam is the father of two types of this State. The former lineage (Abel) form a heavenly society (holy man) and a second lineage (Cain) form a worldly society (people who are not virtuous).[10]
In this case Augustine does not separate the two cities where one party is so evil can be destroyed, and on the other hand is good. In fact, these two cities, have the same effort for the good, such as maintaining the peace and prosperity of the community effort. Augustine explains that the Church is still on in the world, which can not be said to be clean of crime.[11] Therefore, the church should support the country by maintaining and obey its laws and to cooperate in social services for the achievement of a great city and full of peace.[12]
On the other side of the city of God and the city have different world, where world cities conducted by the love of power, which leads to the neglect of God, and the city of God, shaped by the love of God that leads to self-neglect role in ministry. Both cities are a human community, the one destined to reign with God forever, and the other suffered with the devil for ever. But in the end the people who were born in the city of the world will be born again into the city of God by grace through repentance which liberates.[13] Augustine formulates that both the city will become one, in which there are peace and eternal life of the City of Heaven.[14]

Ethical Implications of Augustine's view of Two Cities
a) Relationship of the Church And State
Church and state is an institution created by God. But the church and the state received a call from God and the duties and functions amongst the people in this world.[15] According to Karl Barth, Church and State are both based on the "Kingdom of Christ", where the state is also defined as a portion of the "order of grace". State and the Church is depicted as two concentric environment, and the Gospel is at the center of the sole.[16]
In the framework of God's rule the world, the Church and the State shall have the design for the glory of God, which the Church must regulate the activities of religious rites, and the state take care of political issues. Not infrequently churches also often dragged into the whole politics broke down. However, the church still has a theological principle that should not be swayed by the political currents that are rolling. In the past it is often said that the church is allergic to politics. It is possible that in practice, politics is not independent of the transaction, which in many cases do not fit, even contrary to the values ​​of Christianity. On the other hand, Christians are also called upon to build our prosperity to the common welfare (Jeremiah 29:7). In Romans 13, Paul emphasizes how to actually live as a Christian against the government. Church to bring people closer to God and transform man into a new man.[17] State is an institution that often have problems to maintain that identity is never eternal.[18]

b) Position of the Church In the Community / State
According to the church that the government comes from God to bring about justice, protect, maintain, fight crime and provide the need for citizens and community purposes. We remember that we must obey God more than man (Rom 13:1, 1 Corinthians 3:11, Acts 5:29, 1 Peter 2: 13-17). The Church recognizes that God has given to the nation's independence berazaskan Pancasila in Indonesia who live in a society, nation and state. The Church emphasizes the ideals and responsibilities of citizens in the fight for love, justice, peace and prosperity through national development as the Pancasila. We must take part to uphold and preserve the truth. The church is called to pray for the government and its officials (1 Timoteus 2:1-2; Rom 13:1-7).[19] And in accordance with the purpose of the church, that church purity Oversee administration and warned by the Word of God[20] as the Barmen declaration contained in Theses V which reads as follows.
Fear God! Honour the king (1 Peter 2:17)
The Bible tells us that according to God's rules state duty to maintain justice and peace as far as understood and if necessary by threats and violence in the world that have not survived it, where the Church was located. With gratitude and reverence to God, the Church recognizes the goodness of these rules and reminiscent of the kingdom of God and thus warn good people who govern and the governed.
Church believe and obey the power of the Word of God who sustains all things. Barmen Declaration rejects all forms of power that goes beyond his duties as a government. Similarly with the task of the church by the government takeover, But in this present life, the church often suffer oppression from the state, especially in Indonesia. Based on the law and declared the existence of grain Pancasila that freedom to adopt a religion that believed, amun in reality the Christian church, especially in some places very difficult to do worship and also to establish the Church. The church is expected to be able to voice their prophetic voice against the government in order to maintain freedom of religion to fit the words of Augustine that the State and the Church must be aligned to foster peace and justice as it is from God.

V. Conclusion
Church and State relations to be good according to Augustine. Church must be salt and light up the State. State must be led by the wise as the wise man is the fear of God. Thus people can be led to obedience to God. The church is not dependent on Rome (World State) but depend on God alone.

6.1. Dokumen, Ensiklopedi dan Kamus
-, Aturan Dohot Peraturan GEREJA tahun 2002, Pematangsiantar: L-Sapa. 2009
Heuken A, Ensiklopedi Gereja, jilid III, Jakarta: Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. 1991
-, Konfessi Gereja, Pearaja Tarutung: Kantor Pusat GEREJA. 1996
6.2. Monografi
Agustinus, The City Of God, New York, EPD & CO. 1930
Becker Dieter, Pedoman Dogmatika, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia.1991
Berkhof, H, Sejarah Gereja, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 1992
Bonhoeffer, D, Ethich, New York. 1955
Bosch J. David, Transformasi Misi Kristen, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 1999
Boehlke Robert R, Sejarah Perkembangan Pemikiran dan Praktek Pendidikan Agama Kristen, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 2006
End Th. Van Den, Harta Dalam Berjana, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 1988  
Ladd George Eldon, Teologi Perjanjian Baru, Bandung: Yayasan Kalam hidup. 1999
Lane, Tony, Runtut Pijar ”Sejarah Pemikiran Kristen”, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 1996
Verkuyl J, Etika Kristen: Ras, Bangsa, Gereja dan Negara, Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 1992
Wellem F.D, Riwayat Hidup Singkat Tokoh-tokoh Sejarah Gereja,  Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. 2003
Wilken Robert L,  The Two Cities Of God, Michigan-Cambridge: Grand Rapitds. 1997

[1] Christians were blamed because they do not want to worship the gods, so let the Roman god of wrath and controlled by the Goths.
[2] Agustinus, The City Of God, EPD & CO.INC, New York,1930,  hlm. 15-16
[3] F.D.Wellem, Riwayat Hidup Singkat Tokoh-tokoh Dalam Sejarah Gereja, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 2003 : hlm. 23
[4] Goth is a German tribes of Northern Europe, which is famous for its ferocity and soul of a great war. In 376 the Goths defeated in battle with the Hun tribes, so they ran to the edge of the southern area of ​​the City of Rome. Goths permitted by the government of Rome to stay in the area. Eventually people from indulging in Goth to control the city of Rome. Many of the Goths at that time who served in the government, even some of them are appointed to the Roman army.
[5] Tony Lane, Runtut Pijar ”Sejarah pemikiran Kristen”, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 1996 : hlm. 39
[6] Love is shown through the way of life everyday. State or the kingdom of God that the world is seen in the Christian Church, which will not perish but live forever.
[7] Th. Van Den End, Harta Dalam Bejana, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 1988 : hlm. 89
[8] A. A. Yewangoe, Civil Society Di Tengah  Agama-Agama, Institute Leimena, -, 2004, hlm. 6
[9] Th. Van Den End, Harta Dalam Bejana, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 1988 : hlm. 89
[10] Ibid, hlm. 115 (book  XV)
[11] Robert L. Wilken, The Two Cities Of God, Michigan-Cambridge, U.K, Grand Rapids, 1997 : hlm. 28
[12] David J. Bosch, Transformasi Misi Kristen, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 1999 : hlm. 343
[13] Robert L. Wilken, Op Cit, hlm. 33
[14] Robert L. Wilken OP. Cit,  hlm. 40-41
[15] J. Verkuyl, Ibid, hlm. 238
[16] Dieter Becker, Pedoman Dogmatika, BPK Gunung Mulia, Jakarta, 1991 : hlm. 180
[17] They must obey the government on top, which holds the sword to enforce justice. Obedience is not something that blind obedience but to criticize injustice and lack of truth by the government.
[18] D. Bonhoeffer, Ethich, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955 : hlm. 315
[19] HKBP, Confenssi HKBP, Kantor Pusat HKBP, Pearaja-Tarutung, 1996 : Hlm. 143-144
[20] HKBP, Aturan Dohot Peraturan HKBP tahun 2002, Percetakan HKBP, Pematangsiantar, 2009: hlm. 13